The fund invests in developed financial markets outside Norway. Stonework architecture was introduced from Europe for the most important structures, beginning with the construction of Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. Oslo today, but the history of the title is a fascinating story.  Norway took this opportunity to declare independence, adopted a constitution based on American and French models, and elected the Crown Prince of Denmark and Norway, Christian Frederick, as king on 17 May 1814. From about 1500 BC, bronze was gradually introduced, but the use of stone implements continued; Norway had few riches to barter for bronze goods, and the few finds consist mostly of elaborate weapons and brooches that only chieftains could afford. From Moster, Olav sailed north to Trondheim where he was proclaimed King of Norway by the Eyrathing in 995. Norway is a highly integrated member of most sectors of the EU internal market. Norway is the host of one of the world's biggest extreme sport festivals with music, Ekstremsportveko—a festival held annually in Voss. Norway is also a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Nordic Council; a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD; and a part of the Schengen Area. Norway maintains embassies in 82 countries. , Upon the death of Haakon V (King of Norway) in 1319, Magnus Erikson, at just three years old, inherited the throne as King Magnus VII of Norway.  Norway also has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Life in Norway (especially economic life) was "dominated by the aristocracy of professional men who filled most of the important posts in the central government". The films Die Another Day, The Golden Compass, Spies Like Us and Heroes of Telemark, as well as the TV series Lilyhammer and Vikings also had scenes set in Norway. In 2011, 28% of state revenues were generated from the petroleum industry. Words of Norway tells the stories of Norway to the world, and helps Norwegian companies do the same. Perhaps it was the rain? Bergen gradually took over the role as capital throughout the early years of the 13th-century. , Of the 98 airports in Norway, 52 are public, and 46 are operated by the state-owned Avinor. In 1973, the Norwegian government founded the State oil company, Statoil. Erna Solberg became prime minister, the second female prime minister after Brundtland and the first conservative prime minister since Syse. Now Norway has to find a new way to provide these essential products without exerting negative influence on its environment.. With the introduction of Protestantism in 1536, the archbishopric in Trondheim was dissolved, and Norway lost its independence, and effectually became a colony of Denmark. The majority of the population is fairly fluent in English, especially those born after World War II. This percentage is for the mainland, Svalbard, and Jan Mayen. He started the construction of Akershus Fortress, and concluded a peace that in general was the end of a period of Dano-Norwegian wars. As of 2008, Norway ranks 17th in the World Economic Forum's Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report. Folkemengde 1. januar og endringer i året.  There are 239,057 registered islands. It was led by the Norwegian shipping company Nortraship under the Allies throughout the war and took part in every war operation from the evacuation of Dunkirk to the Normandy landings. Just 5.2 million people live in this sparsely populated country, most of Norway's population is concentrated in the southern portion of the country. The thing meeting places, each eventually with a hörgr (open-air sanctuary) or a heathen hof (temple; literally "hill"), were usually situated on the oldest and best farms, which belonged to the chieftains and wealthiest farmers.  Both oil fields are located in the Barents Sea. The Police Service is headed by the National Police Directorate, which reports to the Ministry of Justice and the Police. The jazz scene in Norway is thriving. Capital and largest city is Oslo, spoken language is Norwegian, a North Germanic language. Norwegian Viking explorers discovered Iceland by accident in the 9th century when heading for the Faroe Islands, and eventually came across Vinland, known today as Newfoundland, in Canada. Since then labour-intensive industries and services like factory mass production and shipping have largely been outsourced. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Norwegian language was subject to strong political and cultural controversies. , For an extended period, the Norwegian art scene was dominated by artwork from Germany and Holland as well as by the influence of Copenhagen. Guidelines implemented in 2007 allow the fund to invest up to 60% of the capital in shares (maximum of 40% prior), while the rest may be placed in bonds and real-estate. 1966–2011", "Population and quarterly changes, Q4 2012", "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, 1 January 2012", "Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, by country background. Throughout the war they sent inspirational radio speeches and supported clandestine military actions in Norway against the Germans. Every December Norway gives a Christmas tree to the United Kingdom as thanks for the British assistance during the Second World War. Sikhs first came to Norway in the early 1970s. The 2013 Norwegian parliamentary election brought a more conservative government to power, with the Conservative Party and the Progress Party winning 43% of the electorate's votes. The membership was drawn from the lower classes of both urban and rural areas; for the first time these two groups felt they had a common cause. Even in its first year, "Musikkens Dag" gathered thousands of people and artists in the streets of Oslo. hr Osnovan je 997. kao trgovište i bio je glavni grad Norveške u doba Vikinga sve do 1217. godine. , The country has the fourth-highest per-capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. Drammen also has a sizeable population of Sikhs; the largest gurdwara in north Europe was built in Lier.  Norway contains five terrestrial ecoregions: Sarmatic mixed forests, Scandinavian coastal conifer forests, Scandinavian and Russian taiga, Kola Peninsula tundra, and Scandinavian montane birch forest and grasslands. Controversial events associated with the black metal movement in the early 1990s included several church burnings and two prominent murder cases. Norway was a founding member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", which is how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to leading theory about the origin of the Norwegian language name. , Through the Council of State, a privy council presided over by the monarch, the prime minister and the cabinet meet at the Royal Palace and formally consult the Monarch. However, he was ruthless in his use of paid informers, the secret police and restrictions on the freedom of the press to put down public movements for reform—especially the Norwegian national independence movement. Civil society organisations also continue to play an important role, and the women's rights organisations are today organised in the Norwegian Women's Lobby umbrella organisation. The northern coast of Norway would thus be ice-covered if not for the Gulf Stream. From the 1900s, improvements in public health occurred as a result of development in several areas such as social and living conditions, changes in disease and medical outbreaks, establishment of the health care system, and emphasis on public health matters. Jones, Gwyn, A history of the Vikings (Oxford 2001). Stunning Photos from Fjord Norway Weddings in 1900, Melting Ice Reveals Ancient Arrows in Norway. All government bills need the formal approval by the monarch before and after introduction to Parliament. A note on Scandinavian Influence in Normandy and in Finland. Oslo offers an abundance of culture and outdoor activities The state income derived from natural resources includes a significant contribution from petroleum production. , Norway is the first country which banned cutting of trees (deforestation), in order to prevent rain forests from vanishing.  Under discussion is development of a new high-speed rail system between the nation's largest cities. This led to the development of Nynorsk in the 19th century and to the formation of alternative spelling standards in the 20th century.  Additionally, Norway has contributed in several missions in contexts of the United Nations, NATO, and the Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union. capital of Norway: 1 n the capital and largest city of Norway; the country's main port; located at the head of a fjord on Norway's southern coast Synonyms: Christiania , Oslo Example of: port a place (seaport or airport) where people and merchandise can enter or leave a country national capital the capital city of …  The fund controls about 1.3% of all listed shares in Europe, and more than 1% of all the publicly traded shares in the world. The disease pattern in Norway changed from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases and chronic diseases as cardiovascular disease. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. The first oil was discovered at the small Balder field in 1967, production only began in 1999. The lowlands around Oslo have the warmest and sunniest summers, but also cold weather and snow in wintertime.. Longyearbyen is the driest place in Norway with 190 millimetres (7.5 inches). By referendums in 1972 and 1994, Norwegians rejected proposals to join the European Union (EU). Although all government and parliamentary acts are decided beforehand, the privy council is an example of symbolic gesture the king retains. This article is about the European country. Thousands of mainly young Swedes migrated to Norway for work during these years, which is easy, as the labour market and social security systems overlap in the Nordic Countries. 3/2005", "The Nobel Prize in Physiologi or Medicine 2014", "The evolution of Norwegian architecture", "Carlsen er verdensmester – Jeg er lykkelig og lettet", "Bandy destined for the Olympic Winter Games!  The country is also home to the natural phenomena of the Midnight sun (during summer), as well as the Aurora borealis known also as the Northern lights. They were Indo-European farmers who grew grain and kept cows and sheep. .  The future size of the fund is closely linked to the price of oil and to developments in international financial markets. The Norwegian farm culture continues to play a role in contemporary Norwegian culture. The state also owns significant shares of Norway's largest bank, DnB NOR and the airline SAS. Because of the large latitudinal range of the country and the varied topography and climate, Norway has a larger number of different habitats than almost any other European country. Anders Breivik: Just how cushy are Norwegian prisons?  Margaret also granted trade privileges to the Hanseatic merchants of Lübeck in Bergen in return for recognition of her right to rule, and these hurt the Norwegian economy. Five percent gave no response.  The Sámi people have never been a single community in a single region of Sápmi.  Until around 1800, inhabitants of Western Norway were referred to as nordmenn (northmen) while inhabitants of Eastern Norway were referred to as austmenn (eastmen). , In 2012, of the total 660,000 with immigrant background, 407,262 had Norwegian citizenship (62.2%). The kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of many petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,149 years. Since the 1990s, a divisive question in politics has been how much of the income from petroleum production the government should spend, and how much it should save. , In 1349, the Black Death radically altered Norway, killing between 50% and 60% of its population and leaving it in a period of social and economic decline. In contrast to Norway, Sweden had substantially higher actual and projected unemployment numbers as a result of the recession. " Today there is a renewed appreciation for the Sámi traditional way of life, which has led to a revival of Noaidevuohta. Volume 1 of. The name Oslo can be traced back to Old Norse and probably means ‘the meadow of the gods’ (the gods being Odin, Thor and those guys). Today, Norway ranks as the second-wealthiest country in the world in monetary value, with the largest capital reserve per capita of any nation. Bjørnson's "peasant novels", such as Ein glad gut (A Happy Boy) and Synnøve Solbakken, are typical of the Norwegian romantic nationalism of their day.  This is also evident in Norway's low Gini coefficient.  The four tiers of road routes are national, county, municipal and private, with national and primary county roads numbered en route. After the enlargement of the EU in 2004, a wave of immigrants arrived from Central and Northern Europe, particularly Poland, Sweden and Lithuania. Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union (1387–1814), with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg. 1 January 2012 (Corrected 30 April 2012), 12 prosent av befolkningen er innvandrere, "Three categories of immigration background, country of birth and citizenship by country background and sex. Both are used in public administration, schools, churches, and media. Tourists flew to Oslo and jumped straight in their rental cars or on the train to the fjords. The documentary film Kon-Tiki (1950) won an Academy Award. It is now thought that these so-called "Arctic" peoples came from the south and followed the coast northward considerably later.  In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads is a plug-in electric. Related words - capital of Norway synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. From the 19th century up to the 1970s, the Norwegian government tried to assimilate both the Sámi and the Kven, encouraging them to adopt the majority language, culture and religion.  Among other arguments in favour of the theory, it is pointed out that the word has a long vowel in Skaldic poetry and is not attested with <ð> in any native Norse texts or inscriptions (the earliest runic attestations have the spellings nuruiak and nuriki). In 2006, according to the US Census Bureau, almost 4.7 million persons identified as Norwegian Americans, which was larger than the population of ethnic Norwegians in Norway itself.  Queen Margaret knew that her power would be more secure if she were able to find a king to rule in her place. A small part of the northernmost coast of Norway has the tundra/alpine/polar climate (ET). Often, Norwegian city municipalities include large areas that are not developed; for example, Oslo municipality contains large forests, located north and south-east of the city, and over half of Bergen municipality consists of mountainous areas. , Norway has the world's largest registered stock of plug-in electric vehicles per capita. They surrendered to the seal hunter as the last German soldiers to surrender in WW2.. something hadn’t yet gelled in my feeling of its sense of “place” ….. Just a hundred years ago it didn’t even have its current name. Some of the inner valleys of Oppland get so little precipitation annually, thanks to the rain shadow effect, that they meet the requirements for dry-summer subarctic climates (Dsc). With Norway's conversion to Christianity some 1,000 years ago, churches were built. To the north, west and south, Norway is bordered by the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea, and Skagerrak.  In 1130, the civil war era broke out on the basis of unclear succession laws, which allowed all the king's sons to rule jointly. The famine of 1695–1696 killed roughly 10% of Norway's population. Norway has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the world in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population. The history of Norway has been influenced to an extraordinary degree by the terrain and the climate of the region. Today the majority of ethnic Kven have little or no knowledge of the language. The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product (GDP).  According to the CIA World Factbook, Norway is a net external creditor of debt. As state church, the Church of Norway's clergy were viewed as state employees, and the central and regional church administrations were part of the state administration. Norway has been considered a progressive country, which has adopted legislation and policies to support women's rights, minority rights, and LGBT rights. Real power was wielded by the leader of the German occupation authority, Reichskommissar Josef Terboven. Some traditional Norwegian dishes include lutefisk, smalahove, pinnekjøtt, raspeball, and fårikål. , Seventeen species are listed mainly because they are endangered on a global scale, such as the European beaver, even if the population in Norway is not seen as endangered. The oldest root names, such as nes, vik, and bø ("cape," "bay," and "farm"), are of great antiquity, dating perhaps from the Bronze Age, whereas the earliest of the groups of compound names with the suffixes vin ("meadow") or heim ("settlement"), as in Bjǫrgvin (Bergen) or Sǿheim (Seim), usually date from the 1st century AD. Thousands of rock carvings from this period depict ships, and the large stone burial monuments known as stone ships, suggest that ships and seafaring played an important role in the culture at large. Harald V of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was crowned King of Norway in 1991, the first since the 14th century who has been born in the country. Following the recession caused by the Napoleonic Wars, economic development of Norway remained slow until economic growth began around 1830.. Kielland's novels and short stories are mostly naturalistic. In recent years, various Norwegian songwriters and production teams have contributed to the music of other international artists.  As such, the Government is directly represented at a local level through the County Governors' offices.  Norway shares a 1,619-kilometre (1,006 mi) land border with Sweden, 727 kilometres (452 mi) with Finland, and 196 kilometres (122 mi) with Russia to the east. The term Norwegian Realm (Old Norse: *Noregsveldi, Bokmål: Norgesveldet, Nynorsk: Noregsveldet) and Old Kingdom of Norway refer to the Kingdom of Norway's peak of power at the 13th century after a long period of civil war before 1240. ", Norway's newly found independence from Denmark encouraged painters to develop their Norwegian identity, especially with landscape painting by artists such as Kitty Kielland, a female painter who studied under Hans Gude, and Harriet Backer, another pioneer among female artists, influenced by impressionism. While in the Viking Age all farmers owned their own land, by 1300, seventy percent of the land was owned by the king, the church, or the aristocracy. At the same time, a movement to make Magnus King of Sweden proved successful, and both the kings of Sweden and of Denmark were elected to the throne by their respective nobles, Thus, with his election to the throne of Sweden, both Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus VII. 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